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Nasal Indicator

To nasalise means to say it through one’s nose.  In TPB system of Romanised Teochew, “`” (found on same key as “~”) is added after vowel/diphthong or consonant to be nasalised.  Originally I used the standard nasal indicator, i.e. “~” above the nasal letter but found it difficult to type, hence impractical.  Indicator for nasal sounds is essential because 2 words with same sequence of Roman letters and same tone would represent 2 different Teochew words if one is nasal while the other is not. 

a` = nasal a, e.g. ka`3 = orange, ka3 = cut with scissors; ka`4 = daring, ka4 = to grind
= nasal ai, e.g. ai`1 = free (have nothing to do), ai1 = mother
ao` = nasal ao, e.g. gu10 ao`3 = a type of slimy toad, ao3 = cup or mug
e` = nasal e, e.g. pe`1 = level, pe1 = crawl; te`1 = to obstruct, te1 = tea
g` = nasal g, e.g. g`ao1 = boil for a long time, gao1 = clever
i` = nasal i, e.g. i`1 = round, i1 = maternal auntie; i`5 = (bird) swift, i5 = will/intention 
= nasal ia, e.g. ia`1 = win, ia1 = coconut
iao` = nasal iao, e.g. iao`2 = lift open, iao2 = (name of a person)
io` = nasal io, e.g. io`1 = sheep, goat or ocean, io1 = kiln
iu` = nasal iu, e.g. iu`4 = dig out (using finger), iu4 = friend
o` = nasal o, e.g. O`54 mng1 = Macau, variant of O54 mng1
oi` = nasal oi, e.g. oi`1 = free (has nothing to do), oi1 = shoes
ou` = nasal ou, e.g. hou`4 (= tiger)
ua` = nasal ua , e.g. ua`4 = bowl, ua4 = I or me.
ue` = nasal ue, e.g. hue`1 = unreasonable, hue1 = come back
ui` = nasal ui , e.g. kui`1 = high
g` = nasal g, e.g. g`in1 = silver or money, g`ou2 = 5


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Romanised Teochew