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Nasal Indicator| Compound Words | Ending with n or ng | Variation in Spoken Teochew | Comparison with Gaginang

Comparison with Romanised Teochew used by Gaginang

Why My System of Romanised Teochew?

I found Gaginang Website to be a good website on Teochew related information but I had difficulty using the Romanised Teochew used by Gaginang:
(a) to English-speakers, some of the letters (e.g. b, d, g and especially j and y) of the alphabet are used rather differently,
(b) its tone indicator system is not explicit on words requiring tone change (hence one has to remember which words require tone change and to change to which tones) and
(c) using "n" as nasal indicator is likely to mislead users. 

Examples of Difficulties in Romanised Teochew used by Gaginang Website

b” is likely to be mispronounced as “b” in “boy”; this is very different from the intended un-aspirated “p” sound as in paper.  In TPB system of Romanised Teochew, this consonant is represented by “p” which is closer to its intended sound.

d” is likely to be mispronounced as “d” in “dog”; this is very different from the intended un-aspirated “t” as in “taunting”.  In TPB system of Romanised Teochew, this consonant is represented by “t” which is closer to its intended sound.

g” is likely to be mispronounced as “g” in “girl”; this is very different from the intended un-aspirated “k” sound as in kicking.  In TPB system of Romanised Teochew, this consonant is represented by “k” which is closer to its intended sound.

j” is likely to be mispronounced as “j” in “jam”; this is very different from the intended un-aspirated “ts” sound in international phonetics.  Since most English speakers are unable to combine “t” and “s” to pronounce ts correctly, in TPB system of Romanised Teochew, this consonant is represented by “z” which is closer to its intended sound.

y” is likely to be mispronounced as “y” in “year”; this is very different from the intended “j” sound as in “jam”.  In TPB system of Romanised Teochew, this consonant is represented by “j” which is close to its intended sound.

eu” is likely to be mispronounced as “eu” in “Europe”; this is very different from its intended sound.  Although the intended sound has no similar sound in English, in TPB system of Romanised Teochew this sound (a vowel, not diphthong) is represented by “er” which is closer to its intended sound.

The nasal indicator is “n” at the end of a word.  This is likely to be wrongly pronounced as “n” at the end of a word, e.g. Gaginang’s Teochew word for hill/mountain is “suan” which is likely to be mispronounced as “s” + “ua” + n” although the intended sound is the nasal form of “sua”.  The Teochew sound “suan” (as “s” + “ua” + n”) means “diamond” in Teochew.  In TPB system of Romanised Teochew, the nasal form of “sua” is “sua`”.  See Nasal Indicator section.

System

TPB

Gaginang

Website

http://www.gateways.sg/~TeochewEnglish

http://www.gaginang.org

 

 

 

Tones                                                Number of tones:

 6  (+ 2 using tones ending with “b”, “d” or “g")

8

High Flat: high pitch throughout, same as Mandarin 1st tone.

 1  (e.g. tan1 = copper)

Macron mark on top, e.g. dāng

Middle Rising: rising from middle pitch to high pitch, same as Mandarin 2nd tone.

 2  (e.g. tan2 = heavy)

Acute accent on top, e.g. dáng

Middle Flat: medium pitch throughout, i.e. between tones 1 & 0.

 3   (e.g. tan3 = east)

No marking, e.g. dang

High Falling: falling from high pitch to medium pitch, same as Mandarin 4th tone.

 4  (e.g. tan4 = wait)

Grave accent mark on top, e.g. dàng

Low Rising: rising from low pitch to medium pitch.

 5  (e.g. si5 = four)

Breve mark on top, e.g.

Low Flat:  low pitch throughout.

 0  (e.g. tan0 = cave )

Dot below, e.g. dạng

High Stop: starts with high pitch (tone 1) but checked.

 b1, d1, g1 (but not ng1) e.g.  ziab1 = frequent; ziad1 = eat, drink; ziag1 = variant of ziab1

Macron mark on top  and ends with p, t or k , e.g. jiāp, jiāt, jiāk

Low Stop: starts with low pitch (tone 0) but checked.

b0, d0, g0 (but not ng0) e.g.  chab0 = join (a person/group); chad0 = pierce; chag0 = paint.

No marking but ends with p, t or k , e.g. chap, chat, chak

 

 

 

Nasal Indicator

 `” (on same key as “~”) after simple/ compound vowel or consonant to be nasalized, e.g. i`1 = round. 

“n” at end of word, e.g. īn = round

Note: Originally I used the more common nasal indicator, i.e. “~” above the nasal letter but found it difficult to type.

 

 

TPB System

Gaginang

a = a as in English word “father” except shorter (between a and a: in international phonetics),  e.g. na1 = basket

 

a

a` = nasal a, e.g. ka`3 = orange, ka3 = sticky; ka`4 = daring, ka4 = grind.

an

ai = combined sound of a and i as in English words “aisle” or “Thai”, or y as in English word “cry” , e.g. ai1 = mother

 

ai

ai` = nasal ai, e.g. ai`1 = free (have nothing to do)

ain

ao = combined sound of a and o (similar to ow as in English word “cow” except end with mouth less tight), e.g. , ao3 = cup, mug.

ao

ao` = nasal ao, e.g. gu10ao`3 = type of slimy frog

aon?

b = b as in English word “boy”,  e.g. bo1 = don’t have

bh

b at end of a Romanised Teochew character: pronounced lightly, air not released; e.g.  ziab1 = frequent

p

c is not used. 

Not used

ch = aspirated ts in international phonetics = c or q in Hanyu Pinyin (similar to ch in English word “church”, except open mouth a little less and speak from front of mouth), e.g. chia3 = vehicle

ch

d is not used except at end of a Romanised Teochew word: d as in English word “said” but pronounced lightly and air not released; e.g.  ziad1 = eat, drink

t

e = e as in English word “pen”,  e.g. pe1 =crawl, pe2 = father, pe4 = bundle

e

e`= nasal e, e.g. pe`1 = level, te`1 = obstruct

en

ei = combined sound of e and I, as in English word “feign” or ay as in English word say”,       e.g. tein1 = lamp  (Note: “ein” is a variant of “en”, i.e. “tein3” in place of “ten3” = lamp)

Not used

er = i as in “zi” or “si” in Hanyu Pinyin (similar to er as in English word “her”, but require back of tongue to be pushed against the roof of the mouth and open mouth a little less), e.g. er1 = push.

eu

f  is not used

Not used

g = g as in English word “go”,  e.g. gao1 = clever

gh

g at the end of a Romanised Teochew character: pronounced lightly and air not released; e.g. ziag1 = frequent = variant of ziab1.

k

g` = nasal g, e.g. g`ao1 = boil for a long time.

ng

h = h as in English word “has”,  e.g. hue4 = fire

h

i = longer than i as in English word “sit” but shorter than ee as in English word “see” (i.e. between i and i: in international phonetics, = i as in xi or qi in Hanyu Pinyin), e.g. i1 = mother’s sister.

 

i

i` = nasal i, e.g. i`1 = round; i`5 = (bird) swift.

in

ia = combined sound of i and a (as in English word “tiara”),  e.g. ia1 = coconut.

ia

ia` = nasal ia, e.g. ia`1 = win.

ian

iao = combined sound of i and ao, e.g. liao4 = finished

iao

iao` = nasal iao ,e.g. iao`2 = lift open.

iaon?

io = combined sound of i and o (similar to io in English word “kiosk”), e.g. io1 = kiln, shake.

io

io` = nasal io, e.g. io`1 = sheep, goat, ocean.

ion

iu = combined sound of i and u, e.g. iu1 = oil, iu0 = pomelo

iu

iu` = nasal iu, e.g. iu`4 = dig out (using finger).

iun?

j = similar to j in English word “jam”, except tongue exerts less pressure and open mouth a little less,  e.g.  jio0 = urine

y

k = non-aspirated k, as in English word “thicker”, e.g. kio1 = bridge, brinjal (egg plant).

g

kh = aspirated k (= kh in international phonetics) as in English word “khaki” or k as in English word “kick”, e.g. khiod1 = take

k

l = l as in English word “long”,  e.g. liao4 = finished

l

m = m as in English word “man”,  e.g. man2 = net, man4 = mosquito, man0 = dream

m

n = n as in English word “no”,  e.g. nai1 (= noi1) = lotus

n

ng = ng as in English word “song, e.g. tng1 = long; sng3 = sour

ng

o = similar to o as in English word “song” except pronounced with mouth opened less       wide (= o in international phonetics),  e.g. hon2 = phoenix

o

o` = nasal o, e.g. O`54 mng1 (variant of O54 mng1) =  Macau.

Not used

oi = combined sound of o and i, as in English word “coin” or “oil”, e.g. oi1 = shoes, oi2 = able

oi

oi` = nasal oi, e.g. oi`1 = free (has nothing to do).

oin?

ou = combined sound of o and u, as in English word “boulder” or o as in English word “so”, e.g. sou3 = crunchy

ou

ou` = nasal ou, e.g. hou`4 = tiger

oun?

p = non-aspirated p as in English word “paper’, e.g. pe1 = crawl

b

ph = aspirated p = ph in international phonetics = p as in English word “paper”, e.g. pho2 = embrace, carry in the arms.

p

q is not used

Not used

r is not used except in er

Not used

s = s as in English word “say”,  e.g. si2 = yes

s

t = non-aspirated t  as in English word “total, e.g. ta4 = step on. 

d

th = aspirated t = th in international phonetics = th as in English word “Thai” or “Thames” or t as in English word “total”, e.g. thai1 = kill, thad0 = pagoda

t

u = longer than u as in English word “full” but shorter than oo as in “fool” (i.e. between u and u: in international phonetics),  e.g. pu1 = boil

u

ua = combined sound of u and a, e.g. ua4 = I, me; tua0 = big.

ua

ua` = nasal ua , e.g. ua`4 = my, bowl.

uan

uai = combined sound of u and ai, e.g.  kuai4 = limp, walking stick.

uai

uai` = nasal uai , e.g.  kuai`4 = fruit.

uain?

ue = combined sound of u and e, e.g. ue1 = draw; ue0 = spoken language

ue

ue` = nasal ue, e.g. hue`1 = unreasonable, hue1 = come back

uen?

ui = combined sound of u and I, similar to ui in English word “equip”; e.g. tui0= team

ui

ui` = nasal ui , e.g. kui`1 = high

uin?

v is not used

Not used

w is not used

?

x is not used

Not used

y is not used

Used in place of j

z = z in Hanyu Pinyin (= un-aspirated ts in international phonetics, similar to ch in English word “church”, except open mouth a little less and speak from front of mouth), e.g. ziad1 = eat, drink.

j

 

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While I try to ensure accuracy, users shall not hold me responsible for any inaccuracy or oversight. 

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